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  • Blog Entries

    • By spartacus007 in Simulation and Technology Enhanced Learning as a Tool to Improve Neonatal Outcomes
         4
      Dear Colleagues,
      I am a consultant neonatologist from Southampton United Kingdom.
      We have run a quality improvement initiative with regards to thermal outcomes in in preterm neonates admitted to the NICU after birth called Project SHIP. This involves standardising management of preterm birth from before delivery to admission to the NICU. As part of this we are doing a short survey on practice in this regard world wide.
      I would be grateful if you could answer a few questions in this regard.
      Dr Alok Sharma
      draloksharma74@gmail.com
      Twitter: @draloksharma74
       
    • By AllThingsNeonatal in All Things Neonatal
         0

      For almost a decade now confirmation of intubation is to be done using detection of exhaled CO2. The 7th Edition of NRP has the following to say about confirmation of ETT placement “The primary methods of confirming endotracheal tube placement within the trachea are detecting exhaled CO2 and a rapidly rising heart rate.” They further acknowledge that there are two options for determining the presence of CO2 “There are 2 types of CO2 detectors available. Colorimetric devices change color in the presence of CO2. These are the most commonly used devices in the delivery room. Capnographs are electronic monitors that display the CO2 concentration with each breath.” The NRP program stops short of recommending one versus the other. I don’t have access to the costs of the colorimetric detectors but I would imagine they are MUCH cheaper than the equipment and sensors required to perform capnography using the NM3 monitor as an example. The real question though is if capnography is truly better and might change practice and create a safer resuscitation, is it the way to go?
      Fast but not fast enough?
      So we have a direct comparison to look at. Hunt KA st al published Detection of exhaled carbon dioxide following intubation during resuscitation at delivery this month. They started from the standpoint of knowing from the manufacturer of the Pedicap that it takes a partial pressure of CO2 of 4 mm Hg to begin seeing a colour change from purple to yellow but only when the CO2 reaches 15 mm Hg do you see a consistent colour change with that device. The capnograph from the NM3 monitor on the other hand is quantitative so is able to accurately display when those two thresholds are reached. This allowed the group to compare how long it took to see the first colour change compared to any detection of CO2 and then at the 4 and 15 mm Hg levels to see which is the quicker method of detection. It is an interesting question as what would happen if you were in a resuscitation and the person intubates and swears that they are in but there is no colour change for 5, 10 or 15 seconds or longer? At what point do you pull the ETT? Compare that with a quantitative method in which there is CO2 present but it is lower than 4. Would you leave the tube in and use more pressure (either PIP/PEEP or both?)? Before looking at the results, it will not shock you that ANY CO2 should be detected faster than two thresholds but does it make a difference to your resuscitation?
      The Head to Head Comparison
      The study was done retrospectively for 64 infants with a confirmed intubation using the NM3 monitor and capnography.  Notably the centre did not use a colorimetric detector as a comparison group but rather relied on the manufacturers data indicating the 4 and 15 mm Hg thresholds for colour changes.  The mean age of patients intubated was 27 weeks with a range of 23 – 34 weeks.  The results I believe show something quite interesting and informative.
        Median time secs (range) Earliest CO2 detection 3.7 (0 – 44s) 4 mm Hg 5.3 (0 – 727) 15 mm Hg 8.1 (0 – 727) I wouldn’t worry too much about a difference of 1.6 seconds to start getting a colour change but it is the range that has me a little worried.  The vast majority of the patients demonstrated a level of 4 or 15 mm Hg within 50 seconds although many were found to take 25-50 seconds.  When compared to a highest level of 44 seconds in the first detection of CO2 group it leads one to scratch their head.  How many times have you been in a resuscitation and with no CO2 change you keep the ETT in past 25 seconds?  Looking closer at the patients, there were 12 patients that took more than 30 seconds to reach a threshold of 4 mm Hg.  All but one of the patients had a heart rate in between 60-85.  Additionally there was an inverse relationship found between gestational age and time to detection.  In other words, the smallest of the babies in the study took the longest to establish the threshold of 4 and 15 mm Hg.
      Putting it into context?
      What this study tells me is that the most fragile of infants may take the longest time to register a colour change using the colorimetric devices.  It may well be that these infants take longer to open up their pulmonary vasculature and deliver CO2 to the alveoli.  As well these same infants may take longer to open the lung and exhale the CO2.  I suppose I worry that when a resuscitation is not going well and an infant at 25 weeks is bradycardic and being given PPV through an ETT without colour change, are they really not intubated?  In our own centre we use capnometry in these infants (looks for a wave form of CO2) which may be the best option if you are looking to avoid purchasing equipment for quantitative CO2 measurements.  I do worry though that in places where the colorimetric devices are used for all there will be patients who are extubated due to the thought that they in fact have an esophageal intubation when the truth is they just need time to get the CO2 high enough to register a change in colour.
      Anyways, this is food for thought and a chance to look at your own practice and see if it is in need of a tweak…
    • By AllThingsNeonatal in All Things Neonatal
         0
      Hypoglycemia has to be one of the most common conditions that we screen for or treat in the NICU and moreover in newborn care in general. The Canadian Pediatric Society identifies small for gestational age infants (weight <10th percentile), large for gestational age (LGA; weight > 90th percentile) infants, infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) and preterm infants as being high risk for hypoglycemia. It is advised then to screen such babies in the absence of symptoms for hypoglycemia 2 hours after birth after a feed has been provided (whether by breast or bottle). I am sure though if you ask just about any practitioner out there, they will tell you a story about a baby with “no risk factors” who had hypoglycemia. These one-off cases have the effect though of making us want to test everyone for fear that we will miss one. If that is the case though should we be recommending that all babies get at least one check?
      The Canadian Pediatric Surveillance Program (CPSP)
      The CPSP is a branch of the Canadian Pediatric Society that “provides an innovative means to undertake active paediatric surveillance and increase awareness of childhood disorders that are high in disability, morbidity, mortality and economic cost to society, despite their low frequency. I submit my surveys each month as i hope other Canadian Pediatricians do and help to determine the impact of these rare conditions in our Canadian population.  Like with any survey we rely on people taking the time to submit but there is always the risk that what is being sent in under represents the true burden of illness as some cases may not be identified.  Having said that, it is the best we have!
      Turning our attention to hypoglycemia in low risk newborns
      From April 2014 to March 2016 the CPSP searched for these types of patients and just published the results of their findings in Hypoglycemia in unmonitored full-term newborns—a surveillance study by Flavin MP et al.  What I like about the study is that they have been able to look at a group of babies that fall outside those identified as being at risk in the CPS statement Screening guidelines for newborns at risk for low blood glucose.  They were looking for severe hypoglycemia by using a threshold of < 2.0 mmol/L (36 mg/dl) and all infants must have received IV dextrose.  In the end after excluding ineligible cases they had 93 babies who met criteria.  Based on the Canadian birth rate this translates to an incidence of 1 in every 8378 births. These babies were all supposed to be low risk but there were in fact clues that while not strictly identified as risks in the CPS statement could have increased the likelihood of a low blood glucose.  Twenty three percent of mothers had maternal hypertension and another 23% were obese while 47% had excessive weight gain during pregnancy.  Furthermore, 8% of mothers were treated with a beta blocker (most likely labetalol I would think) during pregnancy which is a risk factor for hypoglycemia although not specifically cited in the current CPS statement.
      A concerning finding as well was the likelihood of severe symptoms in this group on presentation. Twenty percent presented with major clinical signs (seizure, apnea or cyanosis). Median glucose levels at presentation were much lower than those without major signs (median = 0.8 mmol/L, interquartile range [IQR] = 0.5 versus 1.6 mmol/L, IQR = 0.7; P < 0.001).  Lastly, providers were asked about neurodevelopmental concerns at discharge approximately 20% were thought to have issues.
      Are these patients really low risk though?
      Twenty five percent of the patients submitted had a birth weight less than the 10%ile for GA.  These patients as per the CPS guideline recommendations are actually considered at risk and should have been screened.  The second issue to address has to do with the way we diagnose diabetes in pregnancy.  All women are provided with the oral glucose tolerance test around 28 weeks of pregnancy. No test is perfect but it is the best we have.  Women who have excessive weight gain in pregnancy (almost 50% of the cohort) are at higher risk of developing diabetes or some degree of insulin resistance as are those who are classified as obese.  I have long suspected and think it may be the case here that some babies who do not meet the criteria for screening as their mothers do not have a diagnosis of GDM actually are at risk due to some degree of insulin resistance or perhaps their mothers develop GDM later.  The evidence for this are the occasional LGA babies who are born to mothers without a GDM diagnosis but who clearly have been exposed to high insulin levels as they behave like such affected infants with poor feeding and low sugars in the newborn period.  The authors here comment on those that were SGA but how many in this cohort were LGA?
      The effect of hypertension can also not be minimized which was present in about a quarter of patients.  These babies while not being officially SGA may have experienced a deceleration in weight gain in the last few weeks but remained above the 10%ile.  These infants would not have the glycogen stores to transition successfully but would not be targeted as being at risk by the current definitions.
      Should we be screening everyone then?
      If we acknowledge that about 25% were IUGR in this study (<10%ile) and should have been screened, the expected rate would be 1:1170 births alone.  In Manitoba with our 17000 births a year we would capture about two extra babies a year which translates into a low of pokes for a lot of healthy babies.  Given the further information that 1:5 babies who are identified may have neurodevelopmental concerns it would take about 2-3 years of testing to prevent one concern.  That pick up rate for me is far too low to subject so many babies to testing.  What this study though does highlight is the need to view risk factors a little less strictly.  Babies who are almost meeting the criteria for being LGA or those whose mother’s have taken lebetalol should have a low threshold for screening.  Should hypertension on medications, excessive maternal weight gain or obesity in the mother be considered a risk?  What I didn’t see in the end of this study were patients who truly were AGA, being born to healthy non overweight mothers presenting as high risk.
      Maybe what is really needed based on this study is to re-evaluate what we consider at risk.  In the meantime, maybe we should be testing a few extra babies who fall into these “lesser” risk categories.  Better yet a study isolating such patients and looking at the frequency of hypoglycemia in these patients is warranted to get a better idea of whether they are indeed risks.
    • By emad shatla in emad shatla's Blog
         17
      Preterm baby 35 week was admitted to NICU for total 5 days
      All investigations were normal including blood C/S , CRP CBC And serum Electrolytes
      In day 4 , Baby develop this rash only for 20 minutes then disappear without treatment
    • By AllThingsNeonatal in All Things Neonatal
         0
      Skin to skin care or kangaroo care is all the rage and I am the first one to offer my support for it.  Questions persist though as to whether from a physiological standpoint, babies are more stable in an isolette in a quiet environment or out in the open on their mother or father’s chests. Bornhorst et al expressed caution in their study Skin-to-skin (kangaroo) care, respiratory control, and thermoregulation.  In a surprising finding, babies with an average gestational age of 29 weeks were monitored for a number of physiological parameters and found to have more frequent apnea and higher heart rates than when in an isolette.  The study was small though and while there were statistical differences in these parameters they may not have had much clinical significance (1.5 to 2.8 per hour for apnea, bradycardia or desaturation events).  Furthermore, does an increase in such events translate into any changes in cerebral oxygenation that might in turn have implications for later development?  Tough to say based on a study of this magnitude but it certainly does raise some eyebrows.
      What if we could look at cerebral oxygenation?
      As you might have guessed, that is exactly what has been done by Lorenz L et al in their recent paper Cerebral oxygenation during skin-to-skin care in preterm infants not receiving respiratory support.The goal of this study was to look at 40 preterm infants without any respiratory distress and determine whether cerebral oxygenation (rStO2)was better in their isolette or in skin to skin care (SSC).  They allowed each infant to serve as their own control by have three 90 minute periods each including the first thirty minutes as a washout period.  Each infant started their monitoring in the isolette then went to SSC then back to the isolette.  The primary outcome the power calculation was based on was the difference in rStO2 between SSC and in the isolette.  Secondary measures looked at such outcomes as HR, O2 sat, active and quiet sleep percentages, bradycardic events as lastly periods of cerebral hypoxia or hyperoxia.  Normal cerebral oxygenation was defined as being between 55 to 85%.
      Surprising results?
      Perhaps its the start of a trend but again the results were a bit surprising showing a better rStO2 when in the isolette (−1.3 (−2.2 to −0.4)%, p<0.01).  Other results are summarized in the table below:
      Mean difference in outcomes Variable SSC Isolette Difference in mean p rStO2 73.6 74.8 -1.3 <0.01 SpO2 (median) 97 97 -1.1 0.02 HR 161 156 5 <0.01 % time in quiet sleep 58.6 34.6 24 <0.01 No differences were seen in bradycardic events, apnea, cerebral hypoexmia or hyperoxemia.  The authors found that SSC periods in fact failed the “non-inferiority” testing indicating that from a rStO2 standpoint, babies were more stable when not doing SSC!  Taking a closer look though one could argue that even if this is true does it really matter?  What is the impact on a growing preterm infant if their cerebral oxygenation is 1.3 percentage points on average lower during SSC or if their HR is 5 beats per minute faster?  I can’t help but think that this is an example of statistical significance without clinical significance.  Nonetheless, if there isn’t a superiority of these parameters it does leave one asking “should we keep at it?”
      Benefits of skin to skin care
      Important outcomes such as reductions in mortality and improved breastfeeding rates cannot be ignored or the positive effects on family bonding that ensue. Some will argue though that the impacts on mortality certainly may be relevant in developing countries where resources are scarce but would we see the same benefits in developed nations.  The authors did find a difference though in this study that I think benefits developing preterm infants across the board no matter which country you are in.  That benefit is that of Quiet Sleep (QS).  As preterm infants develop they tend to spend more time in QS compared to active sleep  (AS).  From Doussard- Roossevelt J, “Quiet sleep consists of periods of quiescence with regular respiration and heart rate, and synchronous EEG patterns. Active sleep consists of periods of movement with irregular respiration and heart rate, and desynchronous EEG patterns.”  In the above table one sees that the percentage of time in QS was significantly increased compared to AS when in SSC.  This is important as neurodevelopment is thought to advance during periods of QS as preterm infants age.
      There may be little difference favouring less oxygen extraction during isolette times but maybe that isn’t such a good thing?  Could it be that the small statistical difference in oxygen extraction is because the brain is more active in laying down tracks and making connections?  Totally speculative on my part but all that extra quiet sleep has got to be good for something.
      To answer the question of this post in the title I think the answer is a resounding yes for the more stable infant.  What we don’t know at the moment except from anecdotal reports of babies doing better in SSC when really sick is whether on average critically ill babies will be better off in SSC.  I suspect the answer is that some will and some won’t.  While we like to keep things simple and have a one size fits all answer for most of our questions in the NICU, this one may not be so simple.  For now I think we keep promoting SSC for even our sick patients but need to be honest with ourselves and when a patient just isn’t ready for the handling admit it and try again when more stable.  For the more stable patient though I think giving more time for neurons to find other neurons and make new connections is a good thing to pursue!
  • Upcoming Events

    • 23 April 2018 Until 26 April 2018
      0  
      Barnveckan 2018 i Västerås
      Neonatologiprogram med bl.a. inledningstalare samt föreläsare Professor Lex Doyle, Australien samt Edward Shepherd, MD, USA om Ohio-modellen/BPD
       
      se det preliminära programmet på www.barnveckan.se 
      och följ på instagram: barnveckan2018

    • 17 May 2018 Until 18 May 2018
      0  
      2ND NEONATAL NEUROLOGY CONFERENCE
      Neonatal neurology is ever evolving and new knowledge is always emerging. Assessment techniques have become more advanced.  Newer imaging modalities are increasingly used to help map the extent of brain injury and its implications for neurodevelopment.  This meeting lines up exciting talks from experts in the field.
      More info on: https://www.lutonneocon.co.uk/fom-neurology
    • 23 May 2018 Until 26 May 2018
      0  

      https://www.mcascientificevents.eu/iccn2018/
      MAIN TOPICS
      Hypothermia in preterms: what’s new?
      Teamworking in the NICU
      EPO and neuroprotection: an update
      NIDCAP and family-centered care
      Delivery of fetal CHD patients
    • 02 June 2018 Until 03 June 2018
      0  
      the United States Institute of Kangaroo Care (USIKC) arranges the 14th Annual International Kangaroo Care Certification Course,
      June 2-3 2018, at the Fairview Hospital, 18101 Lorain Avenue, Cleveland OH.
      More info is available at http://www.kangaroocareusa.org/ and in the attached PDF.
      Certification2018.pdf

    • 05 September 2018 Until 08 September 2018
      0  
      https://www.mcascientificevents.eu/ecpm2018/
      MAIN TOPICS
      Abnormal placentation
      Cesarean section
      Diabesity
      Doctors and Midwives; care or cure
      Epigenetics and metabolomics in perinatology
    • 05 September 2018 Until 07 September 2018
      0  
      The 6th International Conference on Human Milk Science and Innovation is a distinctive international forum covering the latest discoveries and scientific and clinical research related to human milk. Renowned scientists and clinicians from around the world are invited to attend this annual event to discuss the scientific potential of human milk and raise awareness of its clinical relevance.
      Click for more information: http://www.humanmilkscience.org/conference
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