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  • Blog Entries

    • By cathfriday in spotted: NICU
         2
      I had an amazing opportunity to visit NICU in the Turku University Hospital in 2016. They admit around 550 problematic newborns per year. About 10% of them are born below 30 weeks of gestation. The whole unit is practically based on 11 family rooms (single family rooms when possible) and additionally one larger room for 4 patients. The larger room is usually used for babies who are admitted due to transient issues (tachypnea, hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia etc). Single family rooms are equipped with an incubator/open warmer bed/cot, one adult bed, one reclining armchair and a nappy changing station. There is also a breast pump and a refrigerator for breast milk in the room. Parents are constantly involved in the care of their preterm baby and are welcome to stay and care for their child all day and night. That’s the theory. So what is the reality?
       
      Entering the unit for the first time, the word that came to my mind was „serenity”. 
      The unit welcomes you with knitted octopuses and tiny socks everywhere.  The whole design of the unit is somehow soft, warm and calming. Each family room is „protected” by a closed door with a window in them - and the window is also covered with a pastel-color quilt. If you want to enter the room, or you’re just looking for your co-worker, you can just „peek in” and check without disturbing the family much. Then you can knock on the door and enter the room. This way you are giving the family the maximum privacy we can offer in those special circumstances.
      Well, you have those tiny, „problematic” children in those private family rooms, with their parents being their primary caretakers, guardians and gate-keepers. Yet, nobody feels that their access to the patient is limited. How is that even possible? Maybe this is what we call „the change of the caring culture”? When you’re „letting go” of some of your duties and delegating them to the parents, you also learn to trust them with your little patient. After all, we all have the same goal- and the parents are personally and emotionally interested in their own child’s well-being, so they have even stronger motivation to perform well.
      Visiting you patient in the single family room feels like visiting your friends, who had just brought their newborn back from the hospital. Imagine the situation, that you’re paying them that first visit, with a little gift wrapped in a pink paper and a big pink balloon. What will you expect? I think it’s quite normal that their room will be a bit messy and everybody will be whispering around the sleeping baby. It’s normal that the mother will be breastfeeding (or pumping milk) in your presence. And again- it’s normal that parents will be touching and cuddling the baby.
      I’ve visited several neonatal intensive care units around the Europe. They all announce proudly, that they are „family centered units”. They all know that skin-to-skin care is a recommended, good and beneficial procedure. Yet in the same time, they actually treat it like a medical procedure - which is time-limited and full of exclusion criteria. That procedure also seems to be quite stressful for the medical staff, because they feel like they can’t access their patient anymore. What if something happens, what if we need to react, how to save that baby when the baby is outside the cot? How can we be medical professionals, when the patient is out of reach?
      It comes straight to the question: what exactly is skin-to-skin care for you? Is it a medical procedure, which is performed once or twice a week, for one hour, when the baby (and the parent!) is fully dressed? Or do you consider mother’s and father’s bare chest as a new space of care for your patient? A safe surrounding, stabilizing baby’s body temperature, breathing and heart rate?  And what do you consider a contraindication for skin-to-skin care? 
      Recently I’ve heard from my friend that in their NICU (highest reference centre) kangaroo care is performed only after the baby reaches 1600g. In other place, I’ve seen a healthy 31-weeker in his second week of life, on full enteral feeds, happily kicking in a closed incubator, who couldn’t be kangarooed or even touched by his parents, just because there was a PICC-line placed in his arm. I still remember those sad parents, wearing plastic gowns, standing by that closed incubator, not being able to even touch their own baby, just because it was a preemie. 
      Prematurity is a diagnosis, but it’s not a sentence! If we are treating similar babies with similar equipment and similarly trained staff - why does our practice differs so much? Leave your comment and join the discussion!
       
       
    • By Stefan Johansson in Reflections incubated in the 99nicu HQ
         2
      I must admit that it is a bit exciting to think about that 99nicu.org went live 12 years ago, at a time when Facebook and other “social media” web sites was yet to be invented.
      (@Zuckerberg, no offense here. Obviously, you created something far greater than 99nicu, still a grass rot project. BTW – could we apply for funding from you Foundation?)
      When starting 99nicu.org in 2006, we nourished an idea that experiences and expertise should not be hindered by geographical boundaries. In some sense, this was a statement, that we as medical professionals could help each other through other channels than journals and conferences, with inclusive and open mindsets, and new technologies.
      Back then we knew little about the powerful potential of the Internet. Neither could we foresee how the Internet would change our private and professional lives. We were just a group of young staff in Sweden, wanting to create a web based platform for discussions within a global group of neonatal pro’s.
      When I read this blog post by @AllThingsNeonatal (on his web site allthingsneonatal.com) where he reflects on how sharing and caring in social media has created a global village, I am struck by the thought - a global village was what we envisioned back in 2006. Coming from a small village myself, I think that also 99nicu.org parallells the village symbolism: a setting with small communication gaps (everyone knows everything about everyone, so we don't need formalities to get in touch and speak out), and where giving and taking advice is a bilateral process that may ultimately lead to “the best solution”. Or simply, that we find out that there are several good solutions for a given problem.
      Has 99nicu become as global village for neonatal staff on the Internet? Although biased, I’d say YES . Data also supports that. During January through April,  the web site had 18.000 visitors from all over the globe, making 45.200 pageviews. From the Google Analytics dashboard we can all see that 99nicu reaches almost every corner of the world!
      Our principal idea has always been that the virtual space is where we operate. It is the Internet that creates the possibility to connect and exchange experience as expertise from where we are. However, meeting up IRL is also a powerful way to maintain sustainable networks and that idea is the driving force behind the “99nicu Meetups”.
      For the 1st and 2nd Meetup conferences in Stockholm and Vienna (in June 2017 and in April 2018), delegates came from 17 and 33 countries, respectively. Let’s hope we can have even a larger geographical representation at our IRL Meetup next year. Stay tuned for dates and location
    • By AllThingsNeonatal in All Things Neonatal
         1
      One of the benefits of operating this site is that I often learn from the people reading these posts as they share their perspectives.  On a recent trip I was reunited with Boubou Halberg a Neonatologist from Sweden whom I hadn’t seen in many years.
      I missed him on my last trip to Stockholm as I couldn’t make it to Karolinska  University but we managed to meet each other in the end.  As we caught up and he learned that I operated this site he passed along a paper of his that left an impact on me and I thought I would share with you.
      When we think about treating an infant with a medicinal product, we often think about getting the right drug, right dose and right administration (IV, IM or oral) for maximum benefit to the patient.  When it comes to nutrition we have certainly come a long way and have come to rely on registered dieticians where I work to handle a lot of the planning when it comes to getting the right prescription for our patients.  We seem comfortable though making some assumptions when it comes to nutrition that we would never make with respect to their drug counterparts.  More on that later…
      A Swedish Journey to Ponder
      Westin R and colleagues (one of whom is my above acquaintance) published a seven year retrospective nutritional journey in 2017 from Stockholm entitled Improved nutrition for extremely preterm infants: A population based observational study.  After recognizing that over this seven year period they had made some significant changes to the way they approached nutrition, they chose to see what effect this had on growth of their infants from 22 0/7 to 26 6/7 weeks over this time by examining four epochs (2004-5, 2006-7, 2008-9 and 2010-11.  What were these changes?  They are summarized beautifully in the following figure.

      Not included in the figure was a progressive change as well to a more aggressive position of early nutrition in the first few days of life using higher protein, fat and calories as well as changes to the type of lipid provided being initially soy based and then changing to one primarily derived from olive oil.  Protein targets in the first days to weeks climbed from the low 2s to the mid 3s in gram/kg/d while provision of lipid as an example doubled from the first epoch to the last ending with a median lipid provision in the first three days of just over 2 g/kg/d.
      While figure 3 from the paper demonstrates that regardless of time period there were declines in growth across all three measurements compared to expected growth patterns, when one compares the first epoch in 2004-2005 with the last 2010-11 there were significant protective effects of the nutritional strategy in place.  The anticipated growth used as a standard was based on the Fenton growth curves.
      What this tells us of course is that we have improved but still have work to do.  Some of the nutritional sources as well were donor breast milk and based on comments coming back from this years Pediatric Academic Society meeting we may need to improve how that is prepared as growth failure is being noted in babies who are receiving donated rather than fresh mother’s own milk.  I suspect there will be more on that as time goes by.
      Knowing where you started is likely critical!
      One advantage they have in Sweden is that they know what is actually in the breast milk they provide.  Since 1998 the babies represented in this paper have had their nutritional support directed by analyzing what is in the milk provided by an analyzer.  Knowing the caloric density and content of protein, carbohydrates and fats goes a long way to providing a nutritional prescription for individual infants.  This is very much personalized medicine and it would appear the Swedes are ahead of the curve when it comes to this.  in our units we have long assumed a caloric density of about 68 cal/100mL.  What if a mother is producing milk akin to “skim milk” while another is producing a “milkshake”.  This likely explains why some babies despite us being told they should be getting enough calories just seem to fail to thrive.  I can only speculate what the growth curves shown above would look like if we did the same study in units that actually take a best guess as to the nutritional content of the milk they provide.
      This paper gives me hope that when it comes to nutrition we are indeed moving in the right direction as most units become more aggressive with time.  What we need to do though is think about nutrition no different than writing prescriptions for the drugs we use and use as much information as we can to get the dosing right for the individual patient!
    • By Stefan Johansson in Reflections incubated in the 99nicu HQ
         1
      As you know, our conference the Future of Neonatal care in Vienna is approaching!
      When we went through the registrations yesterday, it struck us that delegates will come from all corners of the world. There are already delegates coming from 21 countries!
      Just to visualize, we marked the countries on the map below.
      It will be great to meet up with all of you coming! And, although we will represent many different context, I also believe it is a very good example of how a great diversity of people are sharing common questions and problems. My personal reflection is that not only infants are similar around the globe, neonatal staff also share a passion of doing great things for the tiny ones.
      And yes, we still have vacant chairs in the lecture hall. Be mostly welcome to register for the meeting, regardless if you already have colleagues from your country attending
       

    • By AllThingsNeonatal in All Things Neonatal
         0
      In the first part of this series of posts called Can prophylactic dextrose gel prevent babies from becoming hypoglycemic? the results appeared to be a little lackluster.  The study that this blog post was based on was not perfect and the lack of a randomized design left the study open to criticism and an unbalancing of risks for hypoglycemia.  Given these faults it is no doubt that you likely didn’t run anywhere to suggest we should start using this right away as a protocol in your unit.
      Another Study Though May Raise Some Eyebrows
      New Zealand researchers who have been at the forefront of publications on the use of dextrose gel recently published another article on the topic Prophylactic Oral Dextrose Gel for Newborn Babies at Risk of Neonatal Hypoglycaemia: A Randomised Controlled Dose-Finding Trial (the Pre-hPOD Study).  As the short study name suggests “Pre-hPOD” this was a preliminary study to determine which dosing of dextrose gel would provide the greatest benefit to prevent neonatal hypoglycemia.  The study is a little complex in design in that there were eight groups (4 dextrose gel vs 4 placebo) with the following breakdown.

      Dosing was given either once at 1 h of age (0.5 ml/kg or 1 ml/kg) or three more times (0.5 ml/kg) before feeds in the first 12 h, but not more frequently than every 3 h. Each dose of gel was followed by a breastfeed. The groups given prophylaxis fell into the following risk categories;
      IDM (any type of diabetes), late preterm (35 or 36 wk gestation), SGA (BW < 10th centile or < 2.5 kg), LBW (birthweight > 90th centile or > 4.5 kg), maternal use of β-blockers.
      Blood glucose was measured at 2 h of age and then AC feeds every 2 to 4 h for at least the first 12 h.  This was continued until an infant had 3 consecutive blood glucose concentrations of 2.6 mmmol/L.  With a primary outcome of hypoglycemia in the first 48 hours their power calculation dictated that a total sample size of 415 babies (66 in each treatment arm, 33 in each placebo arm) was needed which thankfully they achieved which means we can believe the results if they found no difference!
      What did they find?
      One might think that multiple doses and/or higher doses of glucose gel would be better than one dose but curiously they found that the tried and true single dose of 0.5 mL/kg X 1 offered the best result.  “Babies randomised to any dose of dextrose gel were less likely to develop hypoglycaemia than those randomised to placebo (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.64–0.98, p = 0.03; number needed to 10.”
      Looking at the different cumulative doses, the only dosing with a 95% confidence interval that does not cross 1 was the single dosing.  Higher and longer dosing showed no statistical difference in the likelihood of becoming hypoglycemic in the first 48 hours.  As was found in the sugar babies study, admission to NICU was no different between groups and in this study as with the sugar baby study if one looked at hypoglycemia as a cause for admission there was a slight benefit.  Curiously, while the previous study suggested a benefit to the rate of breastfeeding after discharge this was not noted here.
      How might we interpret these results?
      The randomized nature of this study compared to the one reviewed in part I leads me to trust these findings a little more than the previous paper.  What this confirms in my mind is that giving glucose gel prophylaxis to at risk infants likely prevents hypoglycemia in some at risk infants and given that there were no significant adverse events (other than messiness of administration), this may be a strategy that some units wish to try out.  When a low blood glucose did occur it was later in the group randomized to glucose gel at a little over 3 hours instead of 2 hours.  The fact that higher or multiple dosing of glucose gel given prophylactically didn’t work leads me to speculate this may be due to a surge of insulin.  Giving multiple doses or higher doses may trigger a normal response of insulin in a baby not at risk of hypoglycemia but in others who might already have a high baseline production of insulin such as in IDMs this surge might lead to hypoglycemia.  This also reinforces the thought that multiple doses of glucose gel in babies with hypoglycemia should be avoided as one may just drive insulin production and the treatment may become counterproductive.
      In the end, I think these two papers provide some food for thought.  Does it make sense to provide glucose gel before a problem occurs?  We already try and feed at risk babies before 2 hours so would the glucose gel provide an added kick or just delay the finding of hypoglycemia to a later point. One dose may do the trick though.
      A reader of my Facebook page sent me a picture of the hPOD trial which is underway which I hope will definitively put this question to rest.  For more on the trial you can watch Dr. Harding speak about the trial here.
       
       
         
  • Upcoming Events

    • 02 June 2018 Until 03 June 2018
      0  
      the United States Institute of Kangaroo Care (USIKC) arranges the 14th Annual International Kangaroo Care Certification Course,
      June 2-3 2018, at the Fairview Hospital, 18101 Lorain Avenue, Cleveland OH.
      More info is available at http://www.kangaroocareusa.org/ and in the attached PDF.
      Certification2018.pdf

    • 05 September 2018 Until 08 September 2018
      0  
      https://www.mcascientificevents.eu/ecpm2018/
      MAIN TOPICS
      Abnormal placentation
      Cesarean section
      Diabesity
      Doctors and Midwives; care or cure
      Epigenetics and metabolomics in perinatology
    • 05 September 2018 Until 07 September 2018
      0  
      The 6th International Conference on Human Milk Science and Innovation is a distinctive international forum covering the latest discoveries and scientific and clinical research related to human milk. Renowned scientists and clinicians from around the world are invited to attend this annual event to discuss the scientific potential of human milk and raise awareness of its clinical relevance.
      Click for more information: http://www.humanmilkscience.org/conference
    • 03 October 2018 Until 05 October 2018
      0  
      https://www.mcascientificevents.eu/uenps2018/
      MAIN TOPICS
      Neonatal respiratory disorders and management
      Nutrition of the preterm infant
      Nosocomial infection
      New fortifiers of breast milk
    • 18 October 2018 05:00 AM Until 05:00 PM
      0  
      Our Port Said Neonatology Society is honored to invite you to its
                                                9th Neonatology Conference 18th October 2018
                                                                 NEONATOLOGY IN PRACTICE
      Venue: Tolip golden plaza (Omar Ibn El-Khattab- Masaken Al Mohandesin, Nasr City, Cairo Governorate Egypt)
      Conference honorary president : prof Salah Nassar (Pediatric department - Cairo university)
      Conference president: dr Osama Hussein (President of Port said neonatology society)
      Conference sessions: Thursday 18th of October 
      Registration link Conference website
      Deadline of participation and submission of abstracts : 1/10/2018
      Language: English & Arabic languages
      Presentation: Papers will be invited for oral  with datashow presentation
      Abstracts: should be sent to the group mail: portsaidnicus@gmail.com
      Conference reservation: contact Spark travel office: 201007557666  - Spark.acc@hotmail.com
      Conference president: M Osama Hussein, MD
       
       


    • 30 October 2018 Until 03 November 2018
      0  
      7th Congress of the European Academy of Paediatric Societies (EAPS 2018) 
      Click here for more info: http://www.eaps.kenes.com/2018
       
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