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Showing content with the highest reputation since 10/21/2013 in all areas

  1. One of our fellows showed me these two videos on Youtube, on how to learn brain ultrasound. Both videos are very good! Enjoy Part 1 - anatomy and protocol Part 2 - IVH and PVL
    12 points
  2. I found this consensus on neonatal management of infants born to mothers infected or suspected COVID19. It's free online access. http://atm.amegroups.com/article/view/35751/html
    11 points
  3. Great question, Juan Carlos. I am partial to the VN500, but I'm sure both devices can deliver VG quite well. The problem is that babies don't like to be acidotic. Consequently, there is a problem with permissive hypercapnea in the first days of life in small preemies, because their kidneys are not able to compensate for respiratory acidosis. Therefore, the baby will try to generate a tidal volume sufficient to bring the PCO2 down and normalize the pH. As you know when the tidal volume exceeds the target value, PIP will come down and pretty soon, your baby may be on endotracheal CPAP with rising oxygen requirement (due to the drop in MAP), tachypnea and increased work of breathing. You would have to sedate the baby sufficiently to suppress their respiratory drive, which is a bad idea. People find all kinds of ways to reduce the support for the baby's effort, for example changing from AC to SIMV at a low rate, so the baby is unable to generate adequate minute ventilation and correct the acidosis. So, the baby is struggling, but the doctor is happy, because the PCO2 is where he or she wants it. If you can buffer the acidosis by adding some acetate to your TPN and get the pH up to near normal, you might be able to let the CO2 rise gradually. The focus needs to be on pH, not PCO2, because it's the pH that is the primary stimulus for respiratory drive. Basically it is better to support the baby's effort to maintain normal pH and avoid the mistake of looking only at the PCO2. Ultimately, it is the perivascular pH that controls cerebral circulation, but unfortunately all studies keep focusing on PCO2 and ignoring pH. What we know is that rapid fluctuations in PCO2 confer the greatest risk of IVH. Once the baby is a bit older and the kidneys are more mature, it'a s lot easier to allow permissive hypercapnia if they still need mechanical ventilation. I hope this helps, MK
    9 points
  4. I wanted to let the 99nicu community have the first look at my latest video. It is based on a ground rounds talk I gave on delayed cord clamping several months ago. I updated it and added lots of animation. You can find the video by following this link: https://youtu.be/6qA3CVGp5Sw The video is not public, meaning you can not search for it, but you can follow the link to view it. I'd appreciate any thoughts on the video, especially mistakes you see or if you felt anything I said was misleading about the evidence. Post your comments to this forum and I will respond. I'm hoping to make the video public depending on this communities comments. Also, I feel a bit weird posting or doing anything not COVID19 related these days, but maybe this can be one thing that takes the mind off of the current pandemic for about 16 minutes of your time. -Nathan
    8 points
  5. On behalf of the 99nicu Team, I would like to invite you to participate in our 2nd Journal Club! The article we chose this time is a review article on "Safe emergency neonatal airway management: current challenges and potential approaches" by Joyce E O'Shea, Alexandra Scrivens, Gemma Edwards, and Charles Christoph Roehr. This artile is not Open Access, but I hope you can get it from your hospital library. The review article examines how to acutely manage the neonatal airway, and the challenges related facemask ventilation and intubation. Some of the key messages in this paper are: Intubation success rates are low, especially for inexperienced trainees Universal intubation competency for all pediatric and neonatal trainees and consultants may no longer be possible Videolaryngoscopy can help increase rates The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is a promising alternative to intubation Some of the questions we would like to discuss are: What is current practice in your department? How to do you manage the airways and who is doing what? What do you think are the strengths of this review article? What do you think are some of the limitations? Will this review have an impact in your department? If no - why? If yes, how? We are looking forward to hearing your thoughts and opinions! UPDATE: More information on the virtual journal club on June 9th here: https://99nicu.org/99nicu-news/join-our-virtual-journal-club-meetup-on-neonatal-airway-management-9-june-1630-1715-cet-r124/
    7 points
  6. Check out the , now for the first time as a Virtual Meeting. More info on the attached PDF. Visit the web site for more info and to register: https://www.epiclatino.co/in-english
    7 points
  7. It has to be one of the most common questions you will hear uttered in the NICU. What were the cord gases? You have a sick infant in front of you and because we are human and like everything to fit into a nicely packaged box we feel a sense of relief when we are told the cord gases are indeed poor. The congruence fits with our expectation and that makes us feel as if we understand how this baby in front of us looks the way they do. Take the following case though and think about how you feel after reading it. A term infant is born after fetal distress (late deceleration to as low as 50 BPM) is noted on the fetal monitor. The infant is born flat with no heart rate and after five minutes one is detected. By this point the infant has received chest compressions and epinephrine twice via the endotracheal tube. The cord gases are run as the baby is heading off to the NICU for admission and low and behold you get the following results back; pH 7.21, pCO2 61, HCO3 23, lactate 3.5. You find yourself looking at the infant and scratching your head wondering how the baby in front of you that has left you moist with perspiration looks as bad as they do when the tried and true cord gas seems to be betraying you. To make matters worse at one hour of age you get the following result back; pH 6.99, pCO2 55, HCO3 5, lactate 15. Which do you believe? Is there something wrong with the blood gas analyzer? How Common Is This Situation You seem to have an asphyxiated infant but the cord gas isn’t following what you expect as shouldn’t it be low due to the fetal distress that was clearly present? It turns out, a normal or mildly abnormal cord gas may be found in asphyxiated infants just as commonly as what you might expect. In 2012 Yeh P et al looked at this issue in their paper The relationship between umbilical cord arterial pH and serious adverse neonatal outcome: analysis of 51,519 consecutive validated samples. The authors sampled a very large number of babies over a near 20 year period to come up with a sample of 51519 babies and sought to pair the results with what they knew of the outcome for each baby. This is where things get interesting. When looking at the outcome of encephalopathy with seizures and/or death you will note that only 21.71% of the babies with this outcome had a gas under 7.00. If you include those under 7.10 as still being significantly distressed then this percentage rises to 34.21%. In other words almost 66% of babies who have HIE with seizures and/or death have a arterial cord pH above 7.1! The authors did not look at encephalopathy without seizures but these are the worst infants and almost 2/3 have a cord gas that you wouldn’t much as glance at and say “looks fine” How do we reconcile this? The answer lies in the fetal circulation. When an fetus is severely stressed, anaerobic metabolism takes over and produces lactic acid and the metabolic acidosis that we come to expect. For the metabolites to get to the umbilcal artery they must leave the fetal tissues and enter the circulation. If the flow of blood through these tissues is quite poor in the setting of compromised myocardial contractility the acids sit in the tissues. The blood that is therefore sitting in the cord at the time of sampling actually represents blood that was sent to the placenta “when times were good”. When the baby is delivered and we do our job of resuscitating the circulation that is restored then drives the lactic acid into the blood stream and consumes the buffering HCO3 leading to the more typical gases we are accustomed to seeing and reestablishing the congruence our brains so desire. This in fact forms the basis for most HIE protocols which includes a requirement of a cord gas OR arterial blood gas in the first hour of life with a pH < 7.00. Acidosis May Be Good For the Fetus To bend your mind just a little further, animal evidence suggests that those fetuses who develop acidosis may benefit from the same and be at an advantage over those infants who don’t get acidemia. Laptook AR et al published Effects of lactic acid infusions and pH on cerebral blood flow and metabolism. In this study of piglets, infusion of lactic acid improved cerebral blood flow. I would suggest improvement in cerebral blood flow of the stressed fetus would be a good thing. Additionally we know that lactate may be used by the fetus as additional metabolic fuel for the brain which under stress would be another benefit. Finally the acidemic fetus is able to offload O2 to the tissues via the Bohr effect. In case you have forgotten this phenomenon, it is the tendency for oxygen to more readily sever its tie to hemoglobin and move into the tissues. I hope you have found this as interesting as I have in writing it. The next time you see a good cord gas in a depressed infant, pause for a few seconds and ask yourself is this really a good or a bad thing?
    7 points
  8. So I've seen LISA done once, I've now done it once, next is to roll it out unit wide in our NICU. See one, do one, teach one, right? I'd like to hear from those of you that have been doing LISA/ MIST for a while now. What is the best tip you have? What do you know now that you wish you had known when you first did LISA? What barriers to implementation did you have when you started? Any feedback is welcome. Also, I made a video for our nurses and respiratory therapists to just introduce the idea. Not too in depth, but something to get our education rolling. See what you think.
    6 points
  9. the first 99nicu Webinar - assistant professor Nathan C. Sundgren will lecture on Delayed Cord Clamping, on May 14, 2020 16:00 (CEST) Nathan C. Sundgren, MD, PhD, is medical director of neonatal resuscitation education and assistant professor of Neonatology at Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA. He is concerned about all things related to delivery room care and has published quality improvement work and clinical trials related to delivery room team communication and performance of resuscitation. As an educator, he seeks to use global platforms to spread information on neonatal resuscitation such as on his YouTube channel "TexSun NeoEd." This is our first webinar, and if it works well, we aim to run a series of educational webinars during 2020. Stay tuned!
    6 points
  10. In Wuhan and outside Wuhan cities, the local neonatologists/Pediatricians reported only a few cases. No severe cases, All of the infants have no symptoms or only mild symptoms,and also,no death cases.
    6 points
  11. We recommend stopping breast-feeding until the mothers' COVID-19 test negative for two times . And also we stop vaccinated the suspected infants until the mothers' COVID-19 test negative for two times in the next 2 days.
    6 points
  12. I visited Hot Topics last year and one of the best lectures (according to me!) was held by Judy Aschner, about the use of sodium bicarbonate being principally useless (and could even have adverse effects). Please click here to read an excellent review article on the topic by Aschner and Poland. Unfortunately only the abstact is available for free, but the article is worth to order! As many other units, we have a strong tradition to consider the use buffer, if pH is less than 7.25 and BE less than -5 (at least in in ELBW infants) The article by Aschner and Poland has been subjected to some debate in our units. The major argument in favour of buffer is that we do not use sodium bicarbonate but Tribonat, which is a combination of trometamol (THAM), bicarbonate och acetate. The theoretical idea behind Tribonat is to achieve intracellular (THAM), extracellular (bicarb & acetate). Personally, I have switched to a quite restrictive approach and rarely use buffer, but try to consider the etiology of the base deficit in the management of acid-base. What's your experience and view upon the use of buffer?!
    6 points
  13. It’s been some time since I last posted here. Many things have changed in my life since then- the most important transition being my decision to move to Finland to work as a research fellow with the Baby-friendly Ventilation Study Group in Turku. The life of a beginning clinical researcher deserves a separate post here (it may even come at some point). To celebrate my first anniversary in Finland I would like to share 3 things I wish somebody had told me before I moved here. Enjoy! 1.Get nylon pants. The weather in Finland is truly whimsical. We have had a kind spring, warm summer, and lovely, colorful autumn. I was able to enjoy each of these seasons, biking in the Archipelago, watching sun that never sets, traveling north to see ruska, and finally seeing Northern Lights for the first time in my life. My only concern here is rain. It doesn’t follow laws of gravity AT ALL. How is that possible, that those raindrops are not falling DOWN from the sky, but they are literally attacking you from every direction? It took me some time to overcome my frustration and find a solution. I have closely observed (relatively) happy Finns and discovered that the most important clothing item here is… nylon waterproof pants. The trick is they have to be big enough that you can pull them over your regular pants to keep you dry and warm when it rains. This small thing has definitely improved my comfort here. It has also created that precious feeling of belongingness- I could finally proudly join the rustling and swishing sisterhood of waterproof pants. 2. Drop in the fertility rate is a real thing. Ok, I am a doctor and I KNOW it is a real thing. I know that statistics don’t lie. I know. But I kind of didn’t want to acknowledge that it may actually impact my study. We have had a fairly good start of the patient recruitment, which had kept me busy in spring. But then summer had arrived, and the recruitment slowed down. I kept thinking that maybe it’s just because of the summertime in general (like preemies would be able to pick a season when they want to arrive early, right?). But then autumn has come, and it was time to face the music- I have a problem. In order to recruit the desired number of infants, I may either stay here forever OR I need to come up with a clever solution very soon. Thankfully, I have amazingly supportive supervisors here and we decided- we are expanding! That means more traveling for me (and possibly more blog posts for you)! 3. Compulsive talking about 99nicu may help you to dance more salsa. That statement may seem rather weird, but there is a logical explanation. Very recently I’ve had a chance to attend a regional neonatal meeting in Finland. I was asked to present highlights from the 99nicu Meetup in Copenhagen. Since I like the whole concept of 99nicu.org and loved two conferences I had attended, I took that task very seriously- meticulously prepared my PowerPoint presentation and practiced my performance out loud at home. I decided to tell participants about lectures I remembered the best- neonatal transports, simulations in the NICU and infants surviving at the limit of viability. You may argue that there were more important lectures there, but those were the ones that still “spark joy” after all these months. Do you remember that sim scenario of postpartum seizures in a birthing pool that Ruth Gottstein talked about? I’ve discussed it with so many people in so many places already, that it might have become my favorite topic of random conversations with strangers. Anyways, I think the presentation went well- participants awarded me the prize for the best presentation of the evening! I received a gift card that I can use for cultural or fitness activities in Turku- including more salsa classes in my favorite dance school. Voila! Thank you 99nicu!
    6 points
  14. Hi all, we have published the fifth edition of our e-book “NEOQUESTIONS 1to1” . Please feel free to distribute among your other colleagues to help them gain the knowledge of neonatology. https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/92a170_54197b618fb34a39a7702b7679a085ec.pdf With Best Regards NAVEED
    6 points
  15. Our tiny babies have very tiny tracheas. So far you are probably all with me. Putting that tube in the right position is therefore tricky. In particular avoiding the right mainstem bronchus, which is the wrong position, is important. So first of all; where should the tip be? That seems obvious, it should be in the trachea, high enough above the carina that the tube never slips into the carina, but low enough that it doesn't slip out. On a plain AP radiograph, however, it isn't always clear exactly where the tube tip should be. In general ,studies have suggested that on the radiograph the tip of the tube should be T1-T2. That is based on studies where the position was directly observed, such as in post-mortem studies, and compared with an X-ray. A study from 7 years ago (Thayyil S, et al: Optimal endotracheal tube tip position in extremely premature infants. American journal of perinatology 2008, 25(1):13-16.) noted that babies who had a tube tip lower than T1-T2 were more likely to have right upper lobe collapse, localized PIE and pneumothorax. I think that confirms that T1-T2 is the appropriate location. Now how do we ensure that the tube tip is in that, optimal, position? The NRP (which clearly is not focussed on very preterm babies) suggests to add 6 cm to the infants weight in kg, which leads to tube insertion depths which are too low for most babies under 1 kg (see for example : Peterson J, et al: Accuracy of the 7-8-9 Rule for endotracheal tube placement in the neonate. J Perinatol 2006, 26(6):333-336.) I think it is clear we should not use that rule for babies under 1 kg. Various methods of calculation have been suggested, some are based on calculations using the babies weight, some on gestation, one on foot length (which actually seems to be a good idea, and relatively easy to get to during resuscitation, but I don't know if anyone does that. Embleton ND, et al: Foot length, an accurate predictor of nasotracheal tube length in neonates. Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition 2001, 85(1):F60-F64) maybe Nick Embleton will let me know if anyone uses it. A newly published trial from Colm O'Donnel in Dublin (Flinn AM, et al: Estimating the Endotracheal Tube Insertion Depth in Newborns Using Weight or Gestation: A Randomised Trial. Neonatology 2015, 107(3):167-172.) randomly compared weight and gestational age based standards, unfortunately the weight based standard they used was depth= weight + 6, and they compared this to a table based on gestational age. The number of ET tubes in the right place was higher with the weight calculation, but it was not statistically significant, and there were very many that were malpositioned in both groups, 50% with the weight based calculation, and 60% with the GA table. Another study, which also trashed the 7-8-9 rule promoted by NRP, (Kempley ST, et al: Endotracheal tube length for neonatal intubation. Resuscitation 2008, 77(3):369-373) was a report of a quality improvement initiative in London. It is interesting in part because they showed that intubating the baby and then doing a clinical exam to see if it was in the right place was associated with more than half of the ETTs being mal-positioned. While using a table of distances (either GA based or weight based) was much better, with less than 20% needing repositioning. Colm O'Donnell has also published a letter with photos of endotracheal tubes (Gill I, O'Donnell CP: Vocal cord guides on neonatal endotracheal tubes. Archives of disease in childhood Fetal and neonatal edition 2014, 99(4):F344.) which clearly shows that you can't rely on the ETT marks to decide where to put the tube. Non-one ever evaluated this previously, as far as I can tell in the literature, but using those marks will lead to many being in the wrong place. I think it should be obvious that all babies who are intubated with a 2.5 tube do not have the same length of trachea! So using the same ETT tube marking wll often be wrong. So how best to do this? I think that the first step should be to use a table of insertion depth against body weight. (we are a center which attracts a lot of extremely growth restricted babies, so I would be wary of using a GA standard). I think the table below looks to be the best (the table below is from the study which I refer to above by Stephen Kempley) , I have added a column for nasal intubation based on the demonstration (autopsy study,with body weights down to 500 g) that the distance from nostril to carina is almost exactly 1.2 cm on average longer than the distance from lip to carina (Rotschild A, Chitayat D: Optimal Positioning of Endotracheal Tubes for Ventilation of Preterm Infants. AJDC 1991, 145:1007.) During the intubation procedure, prior to fixing the tube, palpation in the supra-sternal notch can confirm good tube position with very good accuracy, once you have been trained to do it. A randomized trial from Neil Finer's group (Jain A, et al: A randomized trial of suprasternal palpation to determine endotracheal tube position in neonates. Resuscitation 2004, 60(3):297-302.) who showed me the technique when I was his fellow) found a much higher proportion of tubes in the right position after adequate training, and another RCT (Saboo AR, et al: Digital palpation of endotracheal tube tip as a method of confirming endotracheal tube position in neonates: an open-label, three-armed randomized controlled trial. Pediatric Anesthesia 2013, 23(10):934-939) had a high proportion of tubes in good position, 83%, following a process such as I have just described, a table of insertion depths, accompanied by palpation to validate position. Here is that table: (sorry but I can't figure out how to make this table a good size, so click on it to view.). ((This is the initial length to which the tube should be inserted, followed by palpation of the tube to ensure good position, and then a chest radiograph to check its position. The tube length should then be adjusted to align its tip with the thoracic vertebrae T1–T2.)) Another important point, flexion of the neck advances the end of the ETT, but, in fact, the sze of the effect is fairly minor. A severe flexion of 55 degrees only advances the tube tip by about 3 mm (Rost JR, Frush DP, Auten RL: Effect of neck position on endotracheal tube location in low birth weight infants. Pediatric Pulmonology 1999, 27(3):199-202). So if the tube is on the carina when you do the x-ray and the head is flexed, you still need to reposition the tube, you can't rely on good head position to move the tube tip up much. Finally there are some data to support using ultrasound to confirm tube position, (Chowdhry R, Dangman B, Pinheiro JM: The concordance of ultrasound technique versus X-ray to confirm endotracheal tube position in neonates. J Perinatol 2015. Dennington D, Vali P, Finer NN, Kim JH: Ultrasound confirmation of endotracheal tube position in neonates. Neonatology 2012, 102(3):185-189.) It looks like this could be a reliable way of identifying malposition of the tube, and we should consider maybe training everyone to do this, including me!
    6 points
  16. A series of free, online guest lectures in pulmonology, courtesy of the NOTE and ESPR collaboration. I have added these dates into the calendar, but you can sign up for these by contacting noteteam20@gmail.com. All times are in CEST.
    5 points
  17. We do, in our unit. No specific guidelines though. We generally encourage cuddles at every opportunity, including in the delivery room. Sent from my iPhone using Tapatalk
    5 points
  18. https://www.neonatalconversations.com Neonatal Conversations is another NICU dedicated podcast, based out of Sydney, Australia. The first episode, conversation with Nick Evans around use of inotropes is terrific.
    5 points
  19. We will shortly be changing our standardised lipid infusions from syringes to bags which will have a 48hr hang time. Several units in Ireland have already adapted to a 48hr (over several years) hang time for an aqueous bag and we have not noted any increase in infection. Theoretically it should reduce the risk as you are breaking the central line only once every 48hrs as apposed to every day. Despite initial concerns from the neonatal nurses they have embraced the change and are looking forward to changing the lipids to 48 hours as well. The biggest risk is that when the lipids are infused as a separate infusion errors can occur when setting the infusion rates unless there are robust systems in place for checking, prompts on the pumps etc. Unfortunately we have discovered that no one is manufacturing a light protected IV administration set in any colour other than shades of yellow which would help clearly distinguish each infusion. Therefore labelling the lines will be important both before and after the pump, two -person checks at each change of infusion and subsequent infusion rate changes, hourly checking set rate and volume infused and checks at each shift changeover. Another suggestion following an error in the UK is to consider having dedicated pumps for Lipid infusions only.
    5 points
  20. From prof Takeshi Arimitsu, invited speaker at our previously planned Meetup in April 2020 (but cancelled due to Covid), I got an email about an interesting case report from their large neonatal center in Tokyo. They have published about a 268 gram 24-weeker with intact survival. I share the last sentences of the summary below. The publication is available open-access and in full-text here: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fped.2020.628362/full Looking fw to follow the discussion about this extraordinary case.
    5 points
  21. Time really flies, and it now 15 years ago since we started to plan for the 99nicu forums, opening in May 2006. In many ways, this project has been a key part throughout my own neonatology carrier. I have learnt so much about the diversity of how to practise neonatology, and I have also learned to know many people around the world. I had not get to know you without this virtual platform. But with time comes age and I have started to think about how to future-proof the operation and development of 99nicu. I, @Francesco Cardona and @Vicky Payne have started to think about where to go from here. what do you like with 99nicu? how does it benefit your work? what can we do better? what are you missing? Please share what you think!
    5 points
  22. No electrolytes (except possible Ca) in the first day or so, introduce modest amounts of Na and K in IVF/PN on day 2 or 3 based on diuresis and serum Na level. Closer monitoring is required in ELBW/EPT infants. In my experience in the early going the biggest problem people get into is giving too much free water as opposed to being off on the amount or timing of Na administration. After a couple of days the biggest problem, especially in ELBWs, is that massive amounts of acetate given in TPN to compensate for the normal RTA are not adjusted quickly enough and people overshoot and end up with iatrogenic metabolic alkalosis. Later we see the problem of inadequate provision of NaCl manifesting often as poor weight gain (especially in the ELBW advanced on term donor milk).
    5 points
  23. Dear Mohan, from all studies by the team of Professor Stuart Hooper and Professor Arjan te Pas, we know that aeration of the lungs is the master switch to transistion a baby from placental circulation to autonomous circulation. As long as the placenta is not delivered, there is gas exchange and the newborn receives oxygen-rich blood via the placenta. It is therefore important that the baby aerates its lungs before cutting off placental circulation - to ensure that baby's heart receives sufficient oxygen rich blood from the placenta during transition. When the placenta has been delivered, there will no longer be any gas exchange, but there still may be a possibility for placental transfusion, which has some benefit to increase blood volume. This is a nice article on this topic: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fped.2019.00405/full
    5 points
  24. I just wanted to share a link about inotropes, a blog post on a British FOAMed* web site: https://www.paediatricfoam.com/2017/01/inotropes-made-simple/ Managing circulatory failure with potent cardio- and vasoactive drugs can be a challenge, and it is necessary to understand the pathophysiology of the problem to choose the right set of interventions and drugs. *FOAMed = Free Open Access Medical Education
    5 points
  25. The NOTE programme (collaboration between ESPR and University of Southampton) are opening a Pharmacology module in June, led by Karl Allegaert and Sinno Simons, using virtual/remote teaching. More information in attachment and via link below 🙂 https://www.espr.eu/news/news-detail/e-learning-neonatology-paediatrics/186 Proposal NOTE module DINA4 v3 (1).pdf
    5 points
  26. The professional communication during the Covid-19 pandemic really shows the potential to share expertise and experience through web-based channels. Journals, societies, regular news media, social media platforms etc-etc play an important role for us to keep updated, and many web sites have also opened up their content free of charge. We will learn many things from facing and tackling this pandemic, but one major change will certainly be our communication channels. Many are discovering the web-based possibilities to learn and discuss. We will do our best to facilitate professional communication within the neonatal community. And, finally it seems that the company providing our software (IPB) will finally roll out a smartphone app. Which means that 99nicu will literally become available in your pocket through a "99nicu App". The screen shots below comes from the beta-version of the app now used by the company providing our software. And yes, there will be light-mode and dark-mode Stay tuned!
    5 points
  27. The recommendation from the Austrian/German Society for neonatology is as follows: mother COVID-19 positive: isolation of mother and child and no breastfeeding until mother is COVID-19 negative.
    5 points
  28. A collective of the world’s leading newborn brain care providers have come together and launched the https://newbornbrainsociety.org/ (NBS). This new organization is focused on advancing newborn brain care through international multidisciplinary collaboration, education, and innovation. With founding leadership representation from prestigious programs such as Yale, Duke, Harvard, and UCSF, international representation from Canada, Brazil, and Ireland, and parent collaboration through the Hope for HIE Foundation, the goal is to bring together the resources of many programs to move the field forward in previously unattainable ways. “We started this idea originally through an existing group that was started in 2015 through the Neonatal Neuro Critical Care Special Interest Group (NNCC-SIG). We wanted to facilitate multidisciplinary, international collaboration between clinicians, parents, scientists, and others with a focus on newborn brain care; and no other society or organization currently exists in this structure and philosophy,” stated Mohamed El-Dib, MD, founding member and President of the organization. NBS has plans to sponsor, host and participate in educational events that will expand the field of neonatal neurocritical and neuroprotective care, and develop consensus publications including best practice guidelines and expert opinions in the field of newborn brain care. “We are also looking to provide a platform for members to exchange clinical practice guidelines and parent resources related to newborn brain care, and to support multi-center collaborative activities, quality improvement and research projects related to the field of neonatal neurology and brain development,” stated Donna Ferriero, MD, MS, chair of the NBS Steering Committee. Membership is now open for interested clinicians, researchers, trainees, parents and other community members. For more information, visit Newbornbrainsociety.org
    5 points
  29. This is not an uncommon dilemma. We have developed a one paged trigger/ assessment tool for babies who meet criteria for monitoring for moderate or severe encephalopathy. It seems to work most times and one of our fellows is conducting an audit to see if we miss any babies with this tool. Based on this case, it sounds like the baby would have met criteria for clinical monitoring for moderate or severe HIE i.e. prolonged resuscitation and possibly Apgar scores? but not pH or BE related values and we would have then assessed this baby hourly for the first 6 hours of life for clinical signs of moderate or severe encephalopathy. TH would have been started as per the trigger tool thresholds. The problem comes when these babies don't meet clinical criteria for moderate or severe HIE and clinical monitoring is ceased and then go on to have seizures some time later - as is seen in this case. The current trend in our unit would be to not cool them at the 12hr mark but I have personally cooled a baby who did not meet criteria for moderate or severe encephalopathy in the 1st 6hrs but then went on to have seizures at ~8hrs of life. We would just optimise other medical intervention and use anti-convulsants (levetiracetam, topiramate and midazolam or lignocaine) to treat seizure burden. I'm not sure if that helps! Cheers Richard HIE trigger tool.pdf
    5 points
  30. For those of you having follow-up clinics with children born preterm and affected by BPD, check out these European guidelines. A very thorough document. In short, most recommendations (screen shot below) are graded as low or even very low evidence. So there are lots of room for good research! Find the full document here (and yes, it is available as open-access): http://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00788-2019
    5 points
  31. I must admit that it is a bit exciting to think about that 99nicu.org went live 12 years ago, at a time when Facebook and other “social media” web sites was yet to be invented. (@Zuckerberg, no offense here. Obviously, you created something far greater than 99nicu, still a grass rot project. BTW – could we apply for funding from you Foundation?) When starting 99nicu.org in 2006, we nourished an idea that experiences and expertise should not be hindered by geographical boundaries. In some sense, this was a statement, that we as medical professionals could help each other through other channels than journals and conferences, with inclusive and open mindsets, and new technologies. Back then we knew little about the powerful potential of the Internet. Neither could we foresee how the Internet would change our private and professional lives. We were just a group of young staff in Sweden, wanting to create a web based platform for discussions within a global group of neonatal pro’s. When I read this blog post by @AllThingsNeonatal (on his web site allthingsneonatal.com) where he reflects on how sharing and caring in social media has created a global village, I am struck by the thought - a global village was what we envisioned back in 2006. Coming from a small village myself, I think that also 99nicu.org parallells the village symbolism: a setting with small communication gaps (everyone knows everything about everyone, so we don't need formalities to get in touch and speak out), and where giving and taking advice is a bilateral process that may ultimately lead to “the best solution”. Or simply, that we find out that there are several good solutions for a given problem. Has 99nicu become as global village for neonatal staff on the Internet? Although biased, I’d say YES . Data also supports that. During January through April, the web site had 18.000 visitors from all over the globe, making 45.200 pageviews. From the Google Analytics dashboard we can all see that 99nicu reaches almost every corner of the world! Our principal idea has always been that the virtual space is where we operate. It is the Internet that creates the possibility to connect and exchange experience as expertise from where we are. However, meeting up IRL is also a powerful way to maintain sustainable networks and that idea is the driving force behind the “99nicu Meetups”. For the 1st and 2nd Meetup conferences in Stockholm and Vienna (in June 2017 and in April 2018), delegates came from 17 and 33 countries, respectively. Let’s hope we can have even a larger geographical representation at our IRL Meetup next year. Stay tuned for dates and location
    5 points
  32. Hello, I am paediatric trainee currently working in Level 2 NICU in UK. I am doing the journal club presentation about the use of LMA for administration of surfactant in preterm babies. During my previous placements in Level 3 NiCUs, I never seen anyone using LMAs and I was wondering what experience do the rest of you have with using LMAs in neonates. What training did you undergo? Thank you. Lenka
    5 points
  33. I just want to share some brief news about our next Meetup, 7-10 April 2019 at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen/Denmark. We (i.e myself, @Francesco Cardona @RasmusR @Christian Heiring , Gorm Greisen and Morten Breindahl) are currently working on the program lectures and workshops. I just want to share the first five confirmed speakers and their topics: Morten Breindahl: Neonatal transports – how to do them safe and easy Ola Andersson: Cord Clamping, 1.0 and 2.0 Ravi Patel: How to explain when NEC rates persist – even when a NICU does everything “Right” Ulrika Ådén: Infants surviving at the limit of viability, what are the outcomes? What shall we do? Gorm Greisen: Ethical decision making around the limit of viability- lessons from Scandinavia I'll update you all with more names and topics as they are confirmed Looking forward to meet up in Copenhagen!
    5 points
  34. This is great! Thanks so much. I was in Toronto for the NeoHemodynamics 2018 Conference and Workshop and one of the main take-home messages was that both transitional hemodynamics and knowledge of its physiology are key to tailoring therapeutic interventions both in preemies and term babies. The slides from the talks are available at neohemodynamics.com
    5 points
  35. The lungs of a preterm infant are so fragile that over time pressure limited time cycled ventilation has given way to volume guaranteed (VG) or at least measured breaths. It really hasn’t been that long that this has been in vogue. As a fellow I moved from one program that only used VG modes to another program where VG may as well have been a four letter word. With time and some good research it has become evident that minimizing excessive tidal volumes by controlling the volume provided with each breath is the way to go in the NICU and was the subject of a Cochrane review entitled Volume-targeted versus pressure-limited ventilation in neonates. In case you missed it, the highlights are that neonates ventilated with volume instead of pressure limits had reduced rates of: death or BPD pneumothoraces hypocarbia severe cranial ultrasound pathologies duration of ventilation These are all outcomes that matter greatly but the question is would starting this approach earlier make an even bigger difference? Volume Ventilation In The Delivery Room I was taught a long time ago that overdistending the lungs of an ELBW in the first few breaths can make the difference between a baby who extubates quickly and one who goes onto have terribly scarred lungs and a reliance on ventilation for a protracted period of time. How do we ventilate the newborn though? Some use a self inflating bag, others an anaesthesia bag and still others a t-piece resuscitator. In each case one either attempts to deliver a PIP using the sensitivity of their hand or sets a pressure as with a t-piece resuscitator and hopes that the delivered volume gets into the lungs. The question though is how much are we giving when we do that? High or Low – Does it make a difference to rates of IVH? One of my favourite groups in Edmonton recently published the following paper; Impact of delivered tidal volume on the occurrence of intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants during positive pressure ventilation in the delivery room. This prospective study used a t-piece resuscitator with a flow sensor attached that was able to calculate the volume of each breath delivered over 120 seconds to babies born at < 29 weeks who required support for that duration. In each case the pressure was set at 24 for PIP and +6 for PEEP. The question on the authors’ minds was that all other things being equal (baseline characteristics of the two groups were the same) would 41 infants given a mean volume < 6 ml/kg have less IVH compared to the larger group of 124 with a mean Vt of > 6 ml/kg. Before getting into the results, the median numbers for each group were 5.3 and 8.7 mL/kg respectively for the low and high groups. The higher group having a median quite different than the mean suggests the distribution of values was skewed to the left meaning a greater number of babies were ventilated with lower values but that some ones with higher values dragged the median up. Results IVH < 6 mL/kg > 6 ml/kg p 1 5% 48% 2 2% 13% 3 0 5% 4 5% 35% Grade 3 or 4 6% 27% 0.01 All grades 12% 51% 0.008 Let’s be fair though and acknowledge that much can happen from the time a patient leaves the delivery room until the time of their head ultrasounds. The authors did a reasonable job though of accounting for these things by looking at such variables as NIRS cerebral oxygenation readings, blood pressures, rates of prophylactic indomethacin use all of which might be expected to influence rates of IVH and none were different. The message regardless from this study is that excessive tidal volume delivered after delivery is likely harmful. The problem now is what to do about it? The Quandry Unless I am mistaken there isn’t a volume regulated bag-mask device that we can turn to to control delivered tidal volume. Given that all the babies were treated the same with the same pressures I have to believe that the babies with stiffer lungs responded less in terms of lung expansion so in essence the worse the baby, the better they did in the long run at least from the IVH standpoint. The babies with the more compliant lungs may have suffered from being “too good”. Getting a good seal and providing good breaths with a BVM takes a lot of skill and practice. This is why the t-piece resuscitator grew in popularity so quickly. If you can turn a couple dials and place it over the mouth and nose of a baby you can ventilate a newborn. The challenge though is that there is no feedback. How much volume are you giving when you start with the same settings for everyone? What may seem easy is actually quite complicated in terms of knowing what we are truly delivering to the patient. I would put to you that someone far smarter than I needs to develop a commercially available BVM device with real time feedback on delivered volume rather than pressure. Being able to adjust our pressure settings whether they be manual or set on a device is needed and fast! Perhaps someone reading this might whisper in the ear of an engineer somewhere and figure out how to do this in a device that is low enough cost for everyday use.
    5 points
  36. Originally posted at: https://winnipegneonatal.wordpress.com/ Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/allthingsneonatal/ As I read through the new NRP recommendations and began posting interesting points on my Facebook Page I came across a section which has left me a little uneasy. With respect to a newborn 36 weeks and above who is born asystolic and by ten minutes of age continues to remain so and has an apgar score of zero the recommendation that has been put forward is this: An Apgar score of 0 at 10 minutes is a strong predictor of mortality and morbidity in late-preterm and term infants. We suggest that, in babies with an Apgar score of 0 after 10 minutes of resuscitation, if the heart rate remains undetectable, it may be reasonable to stop resuscitation; however, the decision to continue or discontinue resuscitative efforts should be individualized. Variables to be considered may include whether the resuscitation was considered to be optimal, availability of advanced neonatal care, such as therapeutic hypothermia, specific circumstances before delivery (eg, known timing of the insult), and wishes expressed by the family (weak recommendation, very-low-quality evidence). There are some significant problems with this part of the statement. They claim that the apgar score at ten minutes is a strong predictor but when you look at the analysis of the evidence presented in the body of the paper it is weak at best. I am not clear how one declares the prediction is strong in the face of poor evidence but I will acknowledge intuitively that this makes some sense but do challenge them on the use of the word "strong". 2. They are correct in acknowledging that the introduction of hypothermia in such settings has changed the landscape in as much as I find it quite difficult to prognosticate unless a child is truly moribund after resuscitation. Given such uncertainty it is concerning to me that this recommendation may be committed to memory incorrectly in some places that do have access to cooling and may be used more rigidly as though shalt stop at 10 minutes. 3. In the middle of a resuscitation it is quite difficult to process all of the facts pertaining to a particular newborn while orders for chest compressions, emergency UVCs and epinephrine are being given. Can we really individualize within ten minutes accurately and take the families wishes truly into account? This just does not seem practical. 4. The families wishes are taken into account but inserted as a "weak recommendation". How can the wishes of the family in any family centred model of care be minimized in such a way even if we believe the situation to be dire? 5. Since the introduction of hypothermia there appears to be a near 50% survival rate in such newborns and as the authors state 27% of survivors who received cooling had no moderate or severe disability. Here in lies my greatest issue with this guideline and that is the hypocrisy this position takes when you compare populations at 23 and 24 weeks gestational age. Survival at these GA in the recent NEJM study of almost 5000 preterm infants under 27 weeks were 33 and 57 % respectively at 23 & 24 weeks with rates of survival without moderate or severe disability being 16 and 31% in the two groups. The fallout from this and other studies at the extremes of gestational age have been that we should be more aggressive as the outcomes are not as bad as one would predict. How can we argue this for the 23-24 week infants and for term infant with the same likelihood of outcomes we would unilaterally stop in many centres?! So Now What Do We Do? We are supposed to be practising family centred care and much like the argument at the edge of viability the same should apply here. The wishes of the family should never be minimized. Arguably it may be very difficult in such an unexpected scenario to appraise a family of the situation and have clarity around the issue but if a heart rate can be restored after a few more minutes do we not owe it to the family and the child to bring the infant back to the NICU and see what transpires especially if cooling is available? The million dollar question of course is where do we draw the line? No heart rate at 15, 20 minutes? Based on the evidence thus far it seems to me that a little longer than 10 minutes is reasonable especially in well equipped centres with access to cooling and modern ventilation and treatments for pulmonary hypertension. How long though must be individualized and should be determined in partnership with the team caring for the patient which must include the family.
    5 points
  37. Saw this and thought of this thread!! Might be worth trying to link up with the researchers about this!
    4 points
  38. We looked for evidence regarding safety and temperature stability and found one study of 10 infants (no intubated infants) held for 30 minutes on 2nd or 3rd day. There were no adverse events (stable VS, temp, no displacement of umbilical lines or EEG wires) and positive feelings of bonding and connection from moms and nurses Craig A, Deerwester K, Fox L, Jacobs J, Evans S. Maternal holding during therapeutic hypothermia for infants with neonatal encephalopathy is feasible. Acta Paediatr. 2019 Sep;108(9):1597-1602. doi: 10.1111/apa.14743. Epub 2019 Mar 5. PMID: 30721531; PMCID: PMC6682469. We are looking for expert opinions from various centers and plan to do a QI study Kathrynlm what are your criteria?
    4 points
  39. Same as you, for the most part. Keys in my view are: 1) Anticipation of risk factors (length of intubation, cuffed tube, lack of leak, parenchymal lung disease which may make the child more prone to struggle with even transient upper airway narrowing, etc) 2) Early recognition/treatment with nebulized Epi and Steroids as well as consideration of heliox as a further temporizing measure until steroids can kick in 3) Shared mental model with frontline staff that re-intubation may be more challenging and/or need to happen fairly expeditiously if the airway cannot be preserved non-invasively
    4 points
  40. I am treating umbilical granulomas with common salt application at my place for >25 years with excellent results. This can be done by mother or grandmother by applying small piece of rock common salt over the granuloma ( preferably after feeds so that it stays there for at least 3 hours) and fixing it with a plater. I advice twice a day application for a week. It's just a home care remedy for umbilical granulomas.
    4 points
  41. Thank you for your response. I try to reduce unnecessary examinations and treatments and perform only those that are necessary. In addition, I try to avoid treatments with low evidence levels and to include treatments for which new evidence has been shown. I am personally interested in circulatory management immediately after birth, early extubation, infection control, and factors that improve long-term prognosis, and so on. I would also like to promote more family involvement in our NICU. This is because it is the safest treatment with no side effects and has evidence that shows its benefit.
    4 points
  42. Join Concord Talk by Professor Stuart Hooper on February 2nd at 10:00am CET. Don't cut the cord until the baby is ready, the science behind umbilical cord management. Professor Stuart Hooper is professor of physiology in fetal and neonatal health. He is the Director of Research at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Monash University and is Center Head of the Ritchie Centre. In this Talk, Prof. Hooper will educate us on the physiology of transition and the science behind the timing of umbilical cord clamping, built on research performed by his institute and completed with everyday case studies of neonates in need of support. Sign up, together with your colleagues, to join the conversation: https://concordneonatal.com/concord-talk/ If you are not able to attend, please also register to receive the recording.
    4 points
  43. Join experts in the field of neonatal neurology as they speak on clinical and research guidelines, educate on new techniques, and answer your questions! April Speakers: April 2nd: Betsy Pilon - Supporting HIE Families April 9th: Seetha Shankaran, MD - Hypothermia for HIE, Updates and Controversies April 16th: Gerda Meijler, MD - Neonatal Head Ultrasonography: How to Scan a Baby, Normal Anatomy of the Neonatal Brain April 23rd: Linda de Vries, MD - Neuroimaging in the Full Term Infant April 30th: Trainee Session RSVP below to confirm your attendance: https://is.gd/RSVP_NBS_Ed_Webinar_April_2 Contact info@newbornbrainsociety.org with any questions.
    4 points
  44. This is an extract from Prof Jane Pillow's book on HFOV and its applications: You can access the entire publication free of charge from this website - https://www.draeger.com/Library/Content/hfov-bk-9102693-en.pdf - most definitely worth reading! I hope that is helpful! Kind regards
    4 points
  45. This new paper just came onto my radar - on "State-of-the-art neonatal cerebral ultrasound: technique and reporting" in Pediatric Research. Great read! (and if those of us who cannot read, we can look at the pictures like the one below 😛 ) Open access here: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41390-020-0776-y
    4 points
  46. I find these posters very helpful as well. We will all have to look after eachother in the upcoming crisis. https://www.ics.ac.uk/ICS/Education/Wellbeing/ICS/Wellbeing.aspx?hkey=92348f51-a875-4d87-8ae4-245707878a5c #staffwellbeing
    4 points
  47. Dose & administration Three doses at 24-hour intervals, as intravenous injections over 15 minutes, or by oro-gastric administration: 1st dose: 10 mg/kg 2nd and 3rd dose: 5 mg/kg Indications Closure of the patent ductus arteriosus. Contraindications and special considerations (incl incompatibilities) Contraindications include: duct-dependent cardiovascular malformation active bleeding, including intracranial, gastrointestinal or lung bleeding necrotizing enterocolitis (confirmed or suspected) significant thrombocytopenia or coagulation defects significantly reduced renal function significant hyperbilirubinemia Pulmonary hypertension has been reported when ibuprofen was given within 6 hours after birth. Concomitant use the following pharmaceuticals products is not recommended: diuretics: ibuprofen may reduce the effect of diuretics, and diuretics may increase the risk of renal insufficiency in dehydrated patients. anticoagulants: ibuprofen may inhibit platelet function and concomitant use with anticoagulants may increase the risk of bleeding corticosteroids: concomitant use with ibuprofen may increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding nitric oxide: since both nitric oxide and ibuprofen inhibit platelet function, concomitant use may in theory increase the risk of bleeding other NSAIDs: concomitant use of more than one NSAID should be avoided because of the increased risk of adverse reactions aminoglycosides: ibuprofen may reduce clearance of aminoglycosides, concomitant use may increase the risk of nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity, and surveillance of serum levels of aminoglycides should be performed Ibuprofen should not be administrated with any acidic solution. Adverse effects Oligura and transient renal insufficiency. Ibuprofen has less renal side-effects than indomethacin. Pharmacological aspects Ibuprofen is an anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that reduces the synthesis of prostaglandins through a non-selective inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase. Prostaglandins are involved in the persistence of the ductus arteriosus after birth, through relaxation of the muscle layer of the ductus arteriosus. The reduction of prostaglandins by ibuprofen is believed to be the main mechanism of action. The estimated T1/2 is 30 (16-43) hours. References Summary of product characteristics. Pedea -EMEA/H/C/000549 -IG/392. (URL) Ibuprofen for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm or low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD003481. 
PMID: 25692606 Pulmonary hypertension after ibuprofen prophylaxis in very preterm infants. Lancet 2002; 359: 1486–88. PMID: 11988250 Document version history 2017-02-10 / Stefan Johansson
    4 points
  48. 99nicu has become 12 years The first public post (screen shot below) was done on the 11th of May in 2006 by myself and a small group of neonatal friends. Thanks to everyone participating in discussions, sharing great advice and being supportive during these years!
    4 points
  49. Three recent-(ish) articles examining how we should ventilate babies and monitor what we are doing. Milner A, Murthy V, Bhat P, Fox G, Campbell ME, Milner AD, et al. Evaluation of respiratory function monitoring at the resuscitation of prematurely born infants. Eur J Pediatr. 2014:1-4. In this study, respiratory function monitoring with tidal volume, airway pressure and exhaled CO2 was routinely introduced in 2 London hospitals. The authors then asked trainees whether they found it useful, and what they thought the right tidal volume should be. As you might imagine the answers were quite variable, and integrating more than one sign, such as a lack of exhaled CO2 despite measured tidal volumes, was quite variable. van Vonderen JJ, Hooper SB, Hummler HD, Lopriore E, Te Pas AB. Effects of a Sustained Inflation in Preterm Infants at Birth. The Journal of pediatrics. 2014. Tony Milner was one of the authors of that previous article; many years ago he demonstrated that standard ventilation techniques led to an apparent 'opening pressure', where a substantial positive pressure was required to get air into the lungs, and that the end-expiratory volume of the lungs in the first few breaths remained very low. In contrast a long slow inflation (3 to 5 seconds) eliminated the opening pressure, in intubated babies, and led to establishment of an FRC. This new article used a pressure of 25 cmH2O and duration of 10 seconds, delivered by face mask, but was unable to show the establishment of an FRC, unless the babies were breathing. Murthy V, Creagh N, Peacock J, Fox G, Campbell M, Milner A, et al. Inflation times during resuscitation of preterm infants. Eur J Pediatr. 2012;171(5):843-6. This observational study during resuscitation, using the same respiratory function set up as in the first article, could not show that the variation in inflation times which occurred by chance during resuscitation (from 0.3 to 3 seconds) did not affect inspiratory flow duration. Neil Finer reviews the current state of the art of prolonged inflations, his conclusion: 'not ready for prime time'. Schilleman K, Witlox RS, van Vonderen JJ, Roegholt E, Walther FJ, te Pas AB. Auditing documentation on delivery room management using video and physiological recordings. Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition. 2014. If you video record resuscitations, and then compare the tapes to what is actually written in the patients chart, this is what you get: Hmmm.. maybe we need cameras everywhere and make the recordings part of the patients chart... or maybe not!
    4 points
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